Tuesday, December 16, 2008

Recommended Article By PNA Prasanna: Download Slackware 12.2 CD / ISO Images

Hi Linux Prasanna, saw this story on the nixCraft website and thought you should see it.

** Message **
Your friend, PNA Prasanna, has recommended this article to you. Here is his/her remarks:
This is worthy article.

** Download Slackware 12.2 CD / ISO Images **

Slackware version 12.2 has been released and available for download from the official project website. A must-have upgrade for any Slackware user. Download link.

URL to article: http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/download-slackware-122.html 

Monday, December 15, 2008

Changing the Boot Menu Splash

This is how to install your own splash screen for ISOLinux (not the kernel splash, I leave that intact since it really is Slax that is starting, there are tutorials on changing the kernel splash out there).

Modules Required

  • PPMtoLSS16 Module

We are going to create a simple image using the gimp, saving it as a .ppm file. then use the ppmtolss16 utility to convert the ppm to lss. If you are not running under Slax when you do this, you may need to find a ppmtolss utility for your distribution.

  1. Load the PPMtoLSS16 Module
  2. Create a new image in GiMP, 640x400. I use a black background and white or light grey lettering, because we are limited in the number of colors we can use.
  3. Set the color depth to 14, using Image > Mode > Indexed and changing the Maximum Number of Colors to 14.
  4. Okay, go ahead and create your masterpiece.
  5. Save the completed isolinux splash as splash.ppm, raw mode.
  6. In your terminal, cd to the directory you saved splash.ppm and use the command"ppmtolss16< splash.ppm splash.lss"
  7. Replace the splash.lss file in the boot folder of your CD with your new lss file.

Your new ISOLinux Splash will appear after you burn and boot your remastered CD

Wednesday, December 10, 2008

YUM Server Configuration in RHEL5 (Yellow Dog Updater Modified)

YUM Server Configuration in RHEL5 (Yellow Dog Updater Modified) -for increasing the package integrity.

Step 1: install createrepo.rpm from the DVD for creating repository.
# rpm -ivh createrepo.rpm

Step 2: copy all rpms form the DVD and past over the hard disk share them up in NFS.
#createrepo /path-to-rpms
eg: createrepo /var/ftp/pub
It will take several minutes that depends upon the number of rpms that you have copied from the DVD specified and the configuration of your machine.

Step 3: Touch the following file with the contents specified.
#vi /etc/yum.repos.d/somename.repo
name=friendly name

Step 4: Use the yum server in the same machine because server is the first client of the same service most of the times
the following command is used for install gcc compiler
#yum install gcc

Note: Remember ftp or http service has to be running in the yum server.

Client configuration:
Step 1: Touch the following file with the contents specified in case of ftp server is running in the server machine
#vi /etc/yum.repos.d/somename.repo
name=friendly name

Step 2:
the following command is used for install gcc compiler
#yum install gcc
these are the commands for removing the service specified
#yum erase gcc
#yum remove gcc
for mail server
#yum install sendmail

Thursday, December 4, 2008

RHEL 5 Configurations

Want to learn linux in Tamil or Linux configuration files, refer the following link


Want to download various types of kick start files in pdf format, refer the following link

How can use YUM with DVD-RHEL5

To install using yum / DVD:

  1. Update your installation and install the JVM as described above.

  2. Mount the Red Hat Application Stack V.2.0 DVD.

  3. Create a new file in /etc/yum.repos.d/ with the following contents to update directly from the RPMs on the disk:

    [stacksv2] name=Red Hat App Stack baseurl=file:///path/to/mounted/DVD/Stacks/ enabled=1 
  4. Install JBoss Application Server:

    • For the Application Server (which includes an embedded Tomcat), run:

      yum install jbossas 
  5. After the installation is complete, remove the file you added in /etc/yum.repos.d/ in Step 3 (or set enabled=0 in that file). Failure to do this will result in yum exiting with an error whenever it is run again without mounting the Red Hat Application Stack V.2.0 DVD.

Monday, December 1, 2008

Troubleshooting in RHCE Exams with answers

Troubleshooting in Linux


* Boot Related

* File System Related

* User Related

5 1/2 Hours


TS Session A - 2 1/2h Session B 3h

--------------------- ------------

10 questions 20-25 questions

5 cumpulsary 1h RHCT min70% RHCE min70%

5 choice 1 1/2 Installation sendmail

F.S+RAID+LVM postfix

rpm,nic,xwindows squid

cups,crontab samba

user administration ftp,nfs,nisclient

Troubleshooting - Boot Related


steps to look


1. bios

2. grub

grub-install /dev/hda <--- in rescue mode

3. /etc/grub.conf <--- if any line is missing - add the line

<--- if grub.conf file is missing - cmd line booting

4. /boot/

vmlinuz |

initrd | <--- if these files are missing

If vmlinuz is missing


* mount the nfs share

* cp the kernel-2.6.9-42.EL...rpm to /misc

* cp /misc

* rpm2cpio kernel....rpm > llc

* cpio -ivd <>

* cp vmlinuz-2...EL to the /boot directory

If initrd is missing


  • mkinitrd /boot/initrd-2.6.9-42.EL.ing


* mkinitrd /boot/initrd-`uname -r`.img

5. if /sbin/init is missing <--- reinstall SysVinit

6. contineous reboot/shutdown <--- in /etc/inittab

goto single user mode & change the values in /etc/inittab

7. /etc/fstab

To clear the bootloader from mbr


# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda bs=446 count=1

To install grub bootloader in mbr


boot: linux rescue

-/bin/sh-3.00# chroot /mnt/sysimage

sh-3.00# grub-install /dev/hda

sh-3.00# reboot

If kernel panic comes steps to do


grub> root

grub> kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.9-42.EL.img ro root=LABEL=/

grub> initrd /initrd-2.6.9-42.EL.img

grub> boot

If fstab file entry is changed steps to do


1 # mout -o remount,rw /

2 # /bin/vi /etc/fstab

Troubleshooting - User Related


* Password forgot <--- single user mode

* Login failed <--- goto /etc/password in last field /sbin/nologin

* /etc/inittab <--- tty - terminals commented

* /etc/shadow <--- password age set

* (none) login <--- /bin/bash is renamed with some other. single user mode

cd /mnt/sysimage

cd bin

mv bash.xxx bash

DNS Configuration in RHEL 5

DNS Configuration in RHEL 5
Step 1:
set static ipaddress by using these commands
ifconfig eth0

Step 2:

Install all these following rpms

rpm -ivh bind-9.3.3-7.el5.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh bind-chroot-9.3.4-9.P1.el5.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh bind-devel-9.3.3-7.el5.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh bind-libbind-devel-9.3.3-7.el5.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh bind-libs-9.3.3-7.el5.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh bind-sdb-9.3.3-7.el5.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh caching-nameserver-9.3.3-7.el5.i386.rpm

Step 3:

cd /var/named/chroot/var/named/
cp localdomain.zone for.prasanna.com
cp named.local rev.prasanna.com
chown root:named for.prasanna.com
chown root:named rev.prasanna.com

Step 4:

Edit the following files and add the respective lines in those
vi /etc/sysconfig/network

vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

vi /etc/resolv.conf
search prasanna.com
vi /etc/hosts
cd /var/named/chroot/etc
cp named.caching-nameserver.conf named.conf
chown root:named named.conf
vi named.conf
listen-on pot 53{;;};

allow-query{ localhost;;}
match-clients {localhost;;};
match-destination {localhost;;};

vi /etc/named.rfc1912.zones

zone "prasanna.com" IN {
type master;
allow-update {none;};

zone "0.168.192.in-addr.arpa" IN {
type master;
allow-update { none; };

Step 5:
Edit for.prasanna.com and rev.prasanna.com in the respective location /var/named/chroot/var/named
in the following way.

$TTL 86400
42 ; serial (d. adams)
3H ; refresh
15M ; retry
1W ; expiry
1D ) ; minimum

server IN A
client8 IN A
client1 IN A
client2 IN A
client3 IN A
client4 IN A
client5 IN A
client6 IN A
client7 IN A

$TTL 86400
42 ; serial (d. adams)
3H ; refresh
15M ; retry
1W ; expiry
1D ) ; minimum

Step 6:
service named restart
chkconfig named on

if you get all the four sections question, answer,additional, authority as 1, you got it. Otherwise, some check the steps properly.

Step 7:
Client side: in station1.prasanna.com
just touch these files with the existing details
vi /etc/resolv.conf
search prasanna.com
vi /etc/hosts

you should get the same sections like the server, Otherwise check the steps properly.